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Pune, formerly known as Punawadi or Punya-Nagari or Poona, is the eighth largest city in India, and the second largest in the state of Maharashtra, after Mumbai. Situated 560 metres above sea level on the Deccan plateau Astrologers in Pune at the confluence of the Mula and Mutha rivers. Pune is the administrative capital of Pune district and the 7th Metro city of India.

Pune is known to have existed as a town since 937 AD. Shivaji, the founder of the Maratha Empire, lived in Pune as a boy, and later oversaw significant growth and development of the town during his reign. In 1730, Pune became an important political centre as the seat of the Peshwa, the prime minister of the Chhatrapati of Satara. After the town was annexed to British India in 1817, it served as a cantonment town and as the "monsoon capital" of the Bombay Presidency until the independence of India.

Today, Pune is known for its educational facilities, having more than a hundred Best Astrologers in Pune educational institutes and nine universities. Pune has well-established Manufacturing, Glass, Sugar and Metal Forging industries since 1950-60s. Pune also has a growing industrial hinterland, with many information technology and automotive companies setting up factories in Pune district. Additionally, Pune city is well known for various cultural activities like Classical Music, Sports, Literature, Foreign language learning and Administrative, Famous Astrologers in Pune India Economics, Social Science studies. These activities and job opportunities attract migrants and students from all over India, and also attract students from Middle-East, Iran, Eastern Europe, South-East Asia which makes for a city of many communities and cultures.

Etymology, Pune, Maharashtra

The name Pune (anglicized as Poona) derives from Punya Nagari (Sanskrit, "City of Virtue"). The oldest reference to this name is on a Rashtrakuta copper plate dated to 937. Current Era in which the town is referred Top Astrologers in Pune to as Punya-Vishaya or Punak Vishaya. By the 13th century, it had come to be known as Kasbe Pune or Punavadi. Although the city's name is sometimes transcribed as Poona in English, a practice particularly common during the British Raj, the spelling "Pune" has now become standard. Pune is also referred to as the "Student Capital Of India", on account of a tremendous population here being primarily of students in various universities and institutes.

History, Pune, Maharashtra

Early and Medieval
Copper plates dated to 758 and 768 show that, by the 8th century, an List of Astrologers in Pune agricultural settlement known as 'Punnaka' existed where Pune is today. The plates indicate that this region was ruled by the Rashtrakutas. The Pataleshwar rock-cut temple complex was also built during this era.

Pune was a part of Yadava Empire of Deogiri from the 9th century to 1327. It was later ruled by the Nizamshahi sultans, until it was annexed by the Mughal empire in the 17th century. In 1595, Maloji Bhosale was appointed the jahagirdar of Pune and Supe by the Mughals.

Maratha and Peshwa rule
In 1625, Shahaji Bhosale appointed Rango Bapuji Dhadphale(SarDeshpande) as the Leading Astrologers in Pune administrator of Pune. He was one of the first major developers of the town, overseeing the construction of the Kasba, Somwar, Ravivar and Shaniwar Peths. After the destruction of town in the raid of Vijapur sultan during 1630, and again from 1636 to 1647, Dadoji Kondev- a military and Jyotishi in Pune administrative officer of Shahaji Bhosale, oversaw development and construction in the area, he not only stabilzed revenue system of Pune and 12 Mavals but also developed effective methods to control disputes and law & order situation. Construction Horoscope Readers in Pune also began on the Lal Mahal palace, as Shahaji's son, Shivaji Bhosale (later Chattrapati Shivaji) was to move there with his mother Jijabai. The Lal Mahal was completed in 1640. Jijabai is said to have commissioned the building of the Kasba Ganapati temple herself. The Ganapati idol consecrated at this temple is regarded as the presiding deity (gramadevata) of the city.

Shivaji was crowned Chhatrapati in 1674, he oversaw further development in Pune, including the construction of the Guruwar, Somwar, Ganesh and Ghorpade Peths.

Baji Rao I became Peshwa of the Maratha empire, ruled by Chattrapati Shahuji, in 1720. By 1730, the palace of Good Astrologers in Pune Shaniwarwada had been constructed on the banks of the Mutha river, ushering in the era of Peshwa control of the city. The patronage of the Peshwas resulted in the construction of many temples and bridges in the city, including the Lakdi Pul, Parvati temple and the Sadashiv, Narayan, Rasta and Nana Peths. The Peshwas fell into decline after their loss in the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761. In 1802, Pune was captured from the Peshwa by Yashwantrao Holkar in the Battle of Poona, directly precipitating the Second Anglo-Maratha War of 1803-05.Navi Peth, Ganj Peth and Mahatma Phule Peth believed to developed in Pune during British Raj.

British Raj The Third Anglo-Maratha War broke out between the Marathas and the Eminent Astrologers in Pune British in 1817. The Peshwas were defeated at the Battle of Khadki (then transcribed Kirkee) on 5 November 1817 near Pune, and the city was seized. It was placed under the administration of the Bombay Presidency, and the British built a large military cantonment to the east of the city (now used by the Indian Army). The Pune Municipality was established in 1858. Pune was at one time the "monsoon capital" of the Bombay Presidency.

Nanasaheb Peshwa, the adopted son of the last Peshwa Bajirao II, rose against British East India Company rule in 1857, as part of the Indian Mutiny. He was helped by Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi and Tatya Tope. After the mutiny failed, the final remnants of the Renowned Astrologers in Pune Maratha empire were annexed to British India.

Pune was an important centre for the social and religious reform movements of the late 19th century. Many prominent social reformers and freedom fighters lived here, including Bal Gangadhar Tilak a.k.a Lokmanya Tilak, Maharshi Vitthal Ramji Shinde and Jyotirao Phule.

In 1893, Pune found its First Industry in the private sector known as the Great Astrologers in Pune Raja Bahudur Motilal Poona Mills Ltd. It was founded by the Raja Mukundlal Pittie, he named it after his father. His father received the Title, of Raja Bahadur from the Nizam of Hyderabad, which is in the specific hierarchy among the (en)noble(d) Hindu retainers at the court of the Nizam of Hyderabad . The mill was one of its kind and gave many locals employment and flourished until the late twentieth century. The Pittie family are prominent Industrialists in Pune. The Mills reside in the heart of the city, by the Pune Railway Station.

In late 1896, Pune was hit by bubonic plague, by the end of February 1897, the Jyotish in Pune epidemic was raging, the mortality twice the normal, with half the city population having left it. A Special Plague Committee was formed, under the chairmanship of W. C. Rand, an Indian Civil Services officer and troops brought in to deal with the emergency. By the end of May the epidemic was under control. On 22 June 1897, the Diamond Jubilee of the coronation of Queen Victoria, Rand, the Special Plague Committee chairman and his military escort Lt. Ayerst were shot at, while returning from the celebrations at Government House. Both died, Ayerst on the spot and Rand of his wounds on 3 June, 1897. The Chapekar Leading Astrologers in Pune brothers and two accomplices were charged with this murder in various roles, and also the shooting of two informants and an attempt to shoot a police officer. All the three brothers were found guilty and hanged, an accomplice was dealt with similarly, another a school boy was sentenced to ten years rigorous imprisonment. This action of the Chapekars has been considered as the worst violence against political authority seen anywhere in the world during the third plague pandemic.

After independence
After Indian Independence, Pune saw a lot of development, such as the Astrologer in Pune formation of the National Defense Academy NDA, Khadakwasla, National Chemical Laboratory, Pashan and some other research institutes. Pune also served as headquarters of the Southern Command of the army. Industrial developments started around 1950-60s in Hadapsar, Bhosari, Pimpari, and Parvati Industrial estate. Telco (now Tata Motors) started operations in 1961, which gave a huge boost to the automobile sector. Pune was referred at that time as “Pensioners’ Paradise” since many government officers, civil engineers, and Army personnel preferred to settle down in Pune after their retirement. Pune had 200,000 bicycles at that time.

In July 1961, Panshet dam broke and its waters flooded the city, destroying most Vedic Astrologers in Puneof the older sections, giving a chance for modern town planning concepts to be put into use. This unfortunate incident however led constructive developments in the city, and the economy of the city witnessed a boom in construction and manufacturing sectors. By 1966, the City had expanded in all directions.

After 1970, Pune emerged as the leading engineering city of the country, especially in the automotive sector with Telco, Bajaj, Kinetic, Bharat Forge, Alfa Laval, Thermax, etc. expanding their infrastructure. By this time the city had gained the reputation of being the ‘Oxford of the East’ due to a large number of educational institutes. In 1989, Dehu Road-Katraj bypass (Western bypass) was completed, reducing traffic congestion in the inner city. In 1990 Pune began to attract foreign capital, particularly in the information technology and engineering industries; new businesses like floriculture and food processing begin to take root in and around the city.

In 1998, work on the six-lane Mumbai-Pune Pune Astrologer expressway began; a huge Pune Astrologers accomplishment for the country, the expressway was completed in 2001. In the three years before 2000 Pune saw huge development in the Information Technology sector, and IT Parks formed in Aundh, Hinjewadi and Nagar road. By 2005 Pune overtook both Mumbai and Chennai to have more than 2 Lakh (200,000) IT professionals.In 2006, PMC started BRT (Bus Rapid Transit System) project first among all Indian cities but due to narrow roads of the city it have not worked properly however PMC is working on glitches in this project and planning skywalks near BRT and other changes.

The year 2008 saw huge development near the Chakan and Talegaon region as Multinational Corporations (MNCs) like Astrological Services in Pune General Motors, Volkswagen, and Fiat have set up greenfield facilities near Pune. Additionally, in 2008 the Commonwealth Youth Games took place in Pune, which encouraged additional development in the north-west region of the city and added a few Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) buses on Pune's road.[14] The Pune Metropolitan Regional Development Authority (PMRDA) operations should be established by late 2009, Its proposed initiatives will give a huge boost to the city’s infrastructure and include the development of systems for a metro (rapid-transit rail) and buses, plus effective water and garbage treatment facilities.

During July and August 2009 many cases of the Influenza A(H1N1) virus were Astrological Consultation in Pune reported in the city, the first recorded case being at Abhinav School. Pune reported India’s first H1 N1 death,followed by other 52 deaths. Such large number of fatalities due to H1 N1 is highest among all asian cities, this situation resulted in a temporary exodus of students and professionals from city and had a negative impact on the Dahi handi-Gopalkala and century old Ganesh festivals. The city’s cold Astrological Guidance in Pune and humid weather during these months helped to spread the virus.

Geography, Pune, Maharashtra

Pune is located 560 m (1,800 ft) above sea level on the western margin Astrological Help in Pune of the Deccan plateau. It is situated on the leeward side of the Sahyadri mountain range (the Western Ghats), which separate it from the Arabian sea. It is a relatively hilly city, with its tallest hill, Vetal Hill, rising to 800 m (2,600 ft) above sea level. Just outside the city, the Sinhagad fort is located at a height of 1300 m.

Central Pune is located at the confluence of the Mula and Mutha rivers. The Astrological Consultancy in Pune Pavana and Indrayani rivers, tributaries of the Bhima river, traverse the northwestern outskirts of metropolitan Pune. Pune lies very close to the seismically active zone around Koyna Dam, about 100 km south of the city, and has been rated in Zone 4 (on a scale of 2 to 5, with 5 being the most prone to earthquakes) by the India Meteorological Department. Pune has experienced some moderate-intensity and many low-intensity earthquakes in its history. Although no major earthquakes have originated in Pune itself, an earthquake of magnitude 3.2 took place in the Katraj region near Pune on May 17 2008, and a low intensity earthquake observed on night of 30 July 2008 was measured at 4.2 as per news resources around 12:41 am. Astrological Advice in Pune The epicenter for the earthquake was in Koyna Dam field 2004.

Climate, Pune, Maharashtra

Pune has a tropical wet and dry climate with average Pune Astrology temperatures ranging between 20 °C to 28 °C.

Pune experiences three distinct seasons: summer, monsoon and winter. Typical summer months are from March to May, with maximum temperatures ranging from 30 to 38 °C (86 to 100 °F). The warmest month in Pune is April; although summer doesn't end until May, the city often receives locally developed heavy thundershowers in May (although humidity remains high). Even during the hottest months, the nights are usually cool due to Pune's high altitude. The highest temperature ever recorded was 43.3 °C (109.9 °F) on April 30, 1897. The monsoon lasts from June to October, with moderate rainfall and temperatures Top Jyotish in Pune ranging from 10 to 28 °C (50 to 82 °F). Most of the 722 mm of annual rainfall in the city fall between June and September, and July is the wettest month of the year. Pune once received rainfall on 29 consecutive days.

Winter begins in November; November in particular is referred to as the Rosy Cold (literal translation). The daytime Best Jyotish in Pune temperature hovers around 28 °C (82 °F) while night temperature is below 10 °C (50 °F) for most of December and January, often dropping to 5 to 6 °C (41 to 43 °F). The lowest temperature ever recorded was 1.7 °C on January 17, 1935.

Transport, Pune, Maharashtra

Road
Pune Bypass helps traffic from the north to south bypass the city easily Famous Jyotish in Pune India Both public transport (autorickshaws and buses) and private transport (cars, motorcycles and scooters) are popular in Pune. According to one study, there were then 400,000 cars and 1.7 million two-wheelers in Pune in 2007. More than 200,000 vehicles are added to the traffic in Pune every year.

Pune BRTS is the first Bus rapid System in IndiaPublic buses within the city and its suburbs are operated by the Pune Mahanagar Parivahan Mahamandal Limited (PMPML). A Pune Bus Rapid Transit system has been proposed, in which dedicated bus lanes would allow buses to travel quickly through the city. Buses to towns within Pune district surrounding Pune, as well as cities throughout Maharashtra are run by the Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation. Private bus companies also run buses to major cities throughout India, especially Mumbai. Initially, about 10 years ago, the public transport was a little too bad. Recently, a new fleet of buses have started plying and doing good Astrology in Pune business; morover, routes have been extended/added to cope up with the burdening population of the metro. Lately (since August 2008), CNG (Compressed natural gas) buses have started operating and saving fuel cost for the government. Pune is well-connected to other cities by Indian highways and state highways. National Highway 4 (NH 4) connects it to Mumbai and Bangalore, NH 9 to Solapur and Hyderabad, and NH 50 to Nashik. State highways connect it to Ahmednagar, Aurangabad, and Alandi.

MSRTC's "Shivneri" Volvo Bus from Pune to MumbaiSince 2002, Pune has been connected to Mumbai via the Mumbai-Pune Expressway, India's first six-lane high-speed expressway. Both pre-paid air-conditioned "cool" cabs and private bus companies ply this route, connecting Mumbai and Pune in three hours. Out of the total distance of 165 km from Mumbai to Pune, the Express Highway part is 96 km.A ring road is being planned to be constructed for the convenience of traffic.

The Mumbai-Pune Expressway as seen from KhandalaPune is served by two intra-city highways:

Old Pune-Mumbai Highway: This is a major arterial road serving the Pune metropolitan area. The highway begins at the centre of the city i.e. Shivaji Nagar and stretches up to Dehu Road. Most sections of the highway feature 8 lanes (4 in each direction). It features a series of flyovers and underpasses making certain sections traffic signal-free. Katraj-Dehu Road Bypass: This road is a part of the National Highway 4 and forms a metropolitan bypass of the city, skirting through its western border. It is also known as Westerly Bypass. It stretches from Dehu Road in the north to Katraj in the south. This highway features 4 lanes (2 in each direction) and a series of flyovers/grade-separators. All the westbound roads of Pune intersect this highway. The Nashik City-Pune Highway NH 50: This is the Highway totally devoted to traffic from nashik city to pune and from pune to nashik city. A big highway featuring 4 lanes and a series of Tunnels and Bypasses.Sangamner Bypass is still on work. It will make the golden triangle(Nashik-Pune-Mumbai). Pune has witnessed an extraordinary growth in vehicular density and has consequently seen an alarmingly high increase in traffic offenses, accidents, and fatalities resulting from these.

Rail
Pune Metro
A rapid transit system has been proposed in Pune, from past 5 years and is scheduled to begin operations in 2010. It is being planned in consultation with Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited, the corporation which built and operates the Delhi Metro. Three routes have been identified thus far:

Warje-Chinchwad, via Karve road, Jangli Maharaj road, Shivajinagar, and the Pune-Mumbai road (22 km, elevated) Shivajinagar-Kalyaninagar, via Raja Bahadur Mill road and the Pune-Ahmednagar road (13 km, elevated) Agriculture College-Swargate, via Shivaji road (10 km, underground) The city has two railway stations, one in the city and the other at Shivajinagar. Both stations are administrated by the Pune division of the Central Railways, which extends from after Lonavala (which is administered by the Mumbai CSTM division) to before Daund (which is under the Solapur division), to Baramati, and to Hubli (via Miraj)[citation needed]. All the railway lines to Pune are broad gauge, with double electrified lines (1500 volt DC traction) to Lonavala, a double non-electrified line to Daund, and single non-electrified lines to Kolhapur via Miraj and Baramati via Daund.

The city has Pune-Miraj-Hubli-Bangalore rail track which is one of the most important track in Maharashtra.

Local trains (EMUs) connect Pune to the industrial town of Pimpri-Chinchwad and the hill station of Lonavala, while daily express trains connect Pune to Mumbai, Howrah, Delhi, Jammutawi, Chennai, Hyderabad, Bangalore,Jamshedpur(Tatanagar) and so on. There is a train which connects Nashik to pune. At Pune, there is diesel locomotive shed (DLS) and electric trip shed (ETS).

Air
Pune International Airport is an international airport at Lohegaon, operated by the Airports Authority of India. It shares its runways with the neighboring Indian Air Force base, the only one of its kind in the world.[citation needed] Apart from domestic flights to all major Indian cities, this airport serves two international direct flights: one to Dubai (operated by Air India Express), and one to Frankfurt (operated by Lufthansa on an exclusively business class jet). New airport at Chakan is opening shortly The Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation is responsible for the design and construction of a new Pune International Airport. The area between Chakan and Rajgurunagar, around the villages of Chandus and Shiroli, is currently being considered as a construction site. If constructed here, it will be 40 km from central Pune along the Pune-Nashik National highway (NH-50)and will be the largest one in Asia. Domestic airlines connect Pune to Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Nagpur, Goa, Indore and Shirdi.

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Civic Administration, Pune, Maharashtra

The city of Pune is managed by the Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC). The Corporation consists of 149 directly elected councilors, who are led by the Mayor of Pune, a titular position mainly acting as an ambassador and representative of the city. Actual executive power is vested in the Municipal Commissioner, an officer of the Indian Administrative Service who is appointed by the Maharashtra state government.

Apart from the PMC, four other administrative bodies are active within the Pune Metropolitan Area:

Pimpri-Chinchwad Municipal Corporation (PCMC), responsible for Pimpri-Chinchwad and its surroundings, Pune is International Airport. Khadki Cantonment Board (KCB), responsible for Khadki, Pune Cantonment Board (PCB), responsible for Pune Cantonment, and Dehu Road Cantonment Board, responsible for the Dehu Road area. A plan to establish a single Pune Metropolitan Regional Development Authority (PMRDA), consisting of the combined municipal councils, corporations, and other local governments of Pune, Pimpri-Chinchwad, Lonavala, Talegaon, Bhor, Shirur, Saswad, the three cantonments and hundred villages near the city, has been considered since 1997, but might come to fruition this year. This body will then be the executing authority which will acquire and develop reserve land to improve the infrastruction of the Pune metropolitan area.

The Pune Police is headed by the Police Commissioner of Pune, an officer of the Indian Police Service. The Pune Police report to the state ministry.

Military Establishment, Pune, Maharashtra

Pune has been a prominent cantonment town since the early 1800s. Several important battles were fought in and around Pune, including the battle of Khadki (1817) and the battle of Koregaon (1818). Many military establishments have been set up here, including:

The headquarters of the Indian Army's Southern Command. College of Military Engineering where the sappers of the Indian Army are trained. The Bombay Engineering Group or the Bombay Sappers, as they are commonly known, have had their Centre in Pune since 1837 and in its present location in Khadki since 1869. The National Defence Academy (NDA) at Khadakwasla, the joint services academy where Army, Navy and Air Force cadets are trained together before they go for their pre-commission training to their respective academies.

The Armed Forces Medical College trains doctors and nurses for the three services. Defence Institute of Advanced Technology (previously the Institute of Armament Technology)
High Energy Materials Research Laboratory (HEMRL)
Armament Research & Development Establishment (ARDE)
Quality Assurance of Militry Vehicles Dehu Road (CQASV)
Research & Development Est. for engineers, Dighi (R&DE)
Ordnance factories - Ammunition Factory Dehu Road (OFDR) at Dehu Road
Army Institute of Physical Training (AIPT) and Army Sports Institute M
Ordnance factories - Ammunition Factory (AFK) and High Explosive Factory (HEF), located at Khadki.
Army sports Institute, Pune. (ASI) It Is located at Ghorpadi For traing & Preparing Army Pers in Verous Sports at national / international level.

Army Institute of Technology, Pune (AIT) is an engineering college meant for the wards of Indian Army personnel (serving or retired) which is located at Dighi Hills in Pune, Maharashtra, India and affiliated to the University of Pune.

An early war memorial built to commemorate all who fought from Poona in the Great War is located opposite Sassoon Hospital. A more recent war memorial, the National War Memorial (Maharashtra) is located in Pune Cantonment near Ghorpadi. This memorial commemorates the sacrifice of Maharashtrian soldiers of the Indian Armed Forces who lost their lives in the conflicts fought by independent India.

Demographics, Pune, Maharashtra

As per 2001 census of India, the population of the Pune urban expert astrologers in Pune agglomeration is 3,529,900. This includes the towns of Khadki, Pimpri-Chinchwad and Dehu. Growth in the software and education sectors has led to an influx of skilled labour from across India. The population of the urban agglomeration has been estimated to be around 4,485,000 in 2005. The migrating population rose from 43,900 in 2001 to 88,200 in 2005. Almost 30 percent of Pune's population lives in slums. The sharp increase in censorial decade of 1991–2001 can be attributed to the absorption of 38 fringe villages into the city. The literacy rate is about 81%, 1% higher than the national average.

Marathi is the official and most widely spoken language, while Hindi and English are understood and spoken widely. The dialect of Marathi-speaking in Pune has been suggested to be the "standard" form of the language. Pune has many white-collar professionals thanks to a large number of educational, research and training institutes spread throughout the city.

Pune has a substantial population of Brahmins-20% to be more specific-which is the highest for any city in Maharastra. Pune also has a large Muslim population, half of which speak Marathi very well, with the remainder speaking Hindi and Urdu. People from the Muslim Dawoodi Bohra community are also found in the city. Pune is the only city (other than Surat, Navsari, Mumbai and Ahmedabad) to host huge numbers of Parsis, majority of whom are found in Camp, Pune Station, Koregaon Park and Nagar Road. Sikh gurudwaras can be found in the Guruwar Peth, Pune Camp and Dehu Road areas of Pune. Pune's Buddhist population is found primarily in the Yerawada and Parvati area.

A majority of Pune’s population is Marathi, however residents from all over India can be also found in the city. Pune hosts larger number of foreign students and IT professionals.Pune’s White collar population and majority of students are mostly fluent in English. Pune hosts many students and there are numerous student hostels found thought out the city.

According to the Pune Municipal Corporation, 38.9% of the population lived in slums in 2001.

Economy, Pune, Maharashtra

As one of the largest cities in India, and as a result of its many colleges and universities, Pune is emerging as a prominent location for IT and manufacturing companies to expand. Pune has the sixth largest metropolitan economy and the highest per capita income in the country.

Automotive
The automotive sector is particularly prominent in Pune. It is home to the Automotive Research Association of India, which is responsible for the homologation of all vehicles available in India. All sectors of the automotive industry are represented, from two-wheelers and autorickshaws (Bajaj Auto, Kinetic Motor Company) to cars (Volkswagen Group, General Motors, Tata Motors, Mercedes-Benz, Fiat,Peugeot), tractors (John Deere), tempos, excavators (JCB Mfg. Co. Ltd.) and trucks (Force Motors). Several automotive component manufacturers like TATA Autocomp Systems Limited , Robert Bosch GmbH, Visteon, Continental Corporation, ITW, SKF, Magna etc are also located here. Other automotive companies including General Motors, Volkswagen, and Fiat have set up greenfield facilities near Pune, leading The Independent to cite Pune as India's "Motor City".

Other Manufacturing
Engineering goods manufactured in Pune include forges (Bharat Forge), Truck Transmissions Systems, Clutches & Hydraulic components Eaton Corporation, and engines (Kirloskar Oil Engines, Cummins). Other major manufacturers include Alfa Laval, Thyssen Krupp and Black & Veatch, Saint-Gobain Sekurit (Automotive safety glass.)

India's largest engineering conglomerate the Kirloskar Group is based in Pune and was one of the first to set up manufacturing facilities in Pune. Kirloskar Brothers Limited (One of the World's largest Pump Company's), Kirloskar Oil Engines(The Worlds largest Genset Company), Kirloskar Pneumatics Co Ltd and other Kirloskar companies are based in Pune.

Other goods are also manufactured in the area. Electronic goods are manufactured by multinational companies such as the Whirlpool Corporation and the LG Group. Food giants like Frito Lay and Coca Cola have food processing plants, while newer companies such as Tasty Bite have a nearby farm. Many small and medium-sized companies are also active, producing components for larger companies and creating unique components for the Indian marketplace.

Software and Information Technology
The HSBC Global Technology Center at Kalyani Nagar develops software for the entire HSBC group. The Hinjewadi IT Park (officially called as the Rajeev Gandhi IT Park), is a project undertaken by MIDC to promote the IT sector in Pune. When completed, the Hinjewadi IT Park is expected to have an area of about 2800 acres. The estimated investment in the project is Rs. 600.0 million.[38] To facilitate economic growth, the government made liberal incentives in its IT and ITES Policy, 2003 and leased properties based on MIDC land.

The buoyant IT sector in Pune employs more than 70,000 people. Major software companies in Pune include Infosys, Wipro, Satyam, TCS, Cognizant and IBM global. Software giant Microsoft intends to set up a Rs. 700 crore (Rs. 7 billion) project in Hinjewadi. Communications consulting bellwether Tech Mahindra has set up their primary development center in Pune, employing over 23,000 personnel.

Education, Pune, Maharashtra

Pune has more than a hundred educational institutes and nine universities, and has acquired a reputation as 'The Oxford of the East', with students from all over the world studying at the colleges of the University of Pune. Pune has more schools, colleges and universities than any other city in the world.

Basic and Special Education
Schools in Pune
Public schools (known locally as municipality schools) are run by the PMC, and are affiliated with the MSBSHSE. Private schools are run by educational trusts or individuals. They are usually affiliated to either the state board or to national education boards, such as the ICSE, CBSE or NIOS boards.

Pune is the largest centre for Japanese learning in India. JLPT exams are held every December. Instruction in Japanese is provided by many educators, including the University of Pune. Other languages including German (taught at the Max Muller Bhavan) and French (at the Alliance Francaise de Poona) are popular in the city.

University Education
List of colleges and universities in Pune
Most colleges in Pune are affiliated to the University of Pune, established in 1948. Seven other deemed universities have also been established in the city.

The College of Engineering, Pune, founded in 1854, is the second-oldest engineering college in Asia. The Deccan Education Society was founded by several local citizens in 1884, including social and political activist Bal Gangadhar Tilak, and was responsible for founding Fergusson College in 1885. This society currently maintains and operates 32 institutes in Pune.

The University of Pune, the National Defence Academy, Film and Television Institute of India, National Film Archives, Armed Forces Medical College and National Chemical Laboratory were established in Pune after the independence of India.

Symbiosis International University, which operates 33 different colleges and institutions in the city, is one of India's largest private universities. The best institution within the Symbiosis Umbrella being SIBM (Symbiosis Institute of Business Management) amongst others is ranked amongst the top management institutes in the country.

ILS Law College, established by the Indian Law Society is one of the top ten law schools in India. Established medical schools such as the Armed Forces Medical College and Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Medical College train students from all over Maharashtra and India and are amongst the top medical colleges in India. Military Nursing College (affiliated to the AFMC) ranks among the top nursing colleges in the world.

Research Institutes
In addition to the University of Pune, Pune is home to several research institutions of national importance. Located adjacent to the university is the National Chemical Laboratory, one of the Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER) and the Centre for Materials for Electronics Technology (C-MET), while the university campus houses the Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC), Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, the National Centre for Radio Astrophysics and the National Centre for Cell Science.

The KEM Hospital Research Centre, Central Water and Power Research Station (CW & PRS), National Institute Of Bank Management (NIBM), NIC [National Informatics Centre], the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, the Agharkar Research Institute and the Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI),Unit for Research and Development of Information Products (URDIP) and the National AIDS Research Institute are all in or around Pune. YASHADA, which is the Administrative Training Institute of Maharashtra is situated next to the Raj Bhavan in Pune.

The Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute was established in 1917 and is a world-renowned institute for research and instruction in the Sanskrit and Prakrit languages and houses more than 20,000 ancient manuscripts. The National Institute of Virology and National Insurance Academy are located in Pune. Pune also houses the Tata Research Development and Design Centre, a research unit of Tata Consultancy Services, working in the areas of computer science and modeling/simulation for materials processing.

Several military and armament research organizations are also located in Pune (see the Military establishments section in this article).

Culture, Pune, Maharashtra

As the largest city with a predominantly Marathi-speaking populace, Pune is closely associated with Marathi art, literature, drama and religious beliefs. Many Marathi writers, poets, actors, singers and other celebrities live in Pune. In recent years, cinemas, discos and clubs have also opened up as the younger, westernized college students and young professionals make their presence felt. Pune also has a food culture that includes numerous street foods such as "Vada paav, pani puri, ragda raav, kutchi daabeli, sev puri, dahi poori, pav bhaji, egg bhurji, chanachur, guddi ke baal and gola." Pune also hosts large population of Other Indian people from different states. In September 2009, around four lakh Malayalees across the city were celebrated Thiru Onam, the biggest and most important festival of Kerala. Similarly There are approximately three lakh Bengalis in the city who celebrates Durga Puja festival every year.

Food, Pune, Maharashtra

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Pune local cuisine has the typical taste of coconut and garlic, with large use of chillies. Jowar and Bajra are the main ingredients of traditional Pune food. A typical Pune meal includes Poli, bhakri (flattened millet pancakes) with pithla (a flour-based curry), Vada Pav, Bhelpuri, Pani Puri, misal and kacchi dhabeli,Pav bhaji. The mastani, a thick milkshake containing dried fruit, is a speciality of the city. It is named after Mastani, the controversial mistress of the Peshwa Baji Rao I in the 17th century.

Like any other cosmopolitan city, food from all over the world is available in the city's restaurants. A large number of Udupi, Kolhapuri and Maharashtrian restaurants may be found, along with many low-priced dining halls catering to students and office goers. Popular fast-food franchises in the city include Pizza Hut, McDonald's, Subway, KFC, Smokin' Joes and Papa Johns. There are several coffee houses (including Irani cafes) and modern chains such as Cafe Coffee Day, Mocha's and Barista Lavazza Coffee.

The food/snack joints popular among the locals are Vaishali (Fergusson College Road), Sharvaree and Shabari (Fergusson College Road),Kalyan Bhel at various locations, Bedekar Misal,Darshan at Prabhat road, Pushkarni Bhel (adjacent Bajirao Road), Sujata Mastani (at Sadashiv Peth),Relax Pav Bhaji at Sahakar Nagar, Durga Cafe and Anand Juice Bar(at Kothrud) and Marz'o'rin Sandwiches (at Camp). German Bakery at Koregaon Park, The Shrewsbery biscuits of Kayani Bakery are famous. Also popular are the soy beverages and doughnuts produced by Spicer Memorial College (Aundh).

Food Processing Industry
Pune Food Cluster development project, which is an Initiative Funded by World Bank and is being implemented with the help of SIDBI, Cluster Craft is for upliftment of the Fruit and vegetable processing industries in and around Pune.

Religion, Pune, Maharashtra

Hinduism is the most commonly practised religion in Pune, although many mosques, gurudwaras, Jain temples and other religious buildings are found throughout the city[citation needed]. The most prominent Hindu temple in Pune is the Parvati temple, located on Parvati hill and visible from most of the inner suburbs. The most famous is likely the Chaturshringi Temple, located on the slopes of a hill in the northwest of the city. During Navratri (which usually falls in the month of September), there is a large procession to this temple and worshippers gather from around the country to pray here.The presiding god of Pune city is the Kasba Ganapati, whose temple is found in Kasba Peth in central Pune.

Since 1894, Pune has celebrated Ganesh Chaturthi as a ten-day long festival, in which most neighborhoods put up a pandal (tent) with an idol of Ganesha, often amidst a religious setting, complete with decorative lights and festive music. This festival culminates with a parade of Ganesh idols from across the city carried to the local rivers to be immersed (Ganesh visarjan). The Kasba Ganapati, as the presiding deity of the city, is the first in this parade. The idea of a public celebration was initiated by Lokmanya Tilak in Pune, and has since spread to many other cities, particularly Mumbai, which has a massive parade every year.

Significant religious leaders Sant Dnyaneshwar (born in Alandi in the 13th century) and poet Sant Tukaram (born in Dehu in the 17th century) were born near Pune. Their link to the city is commemorated with an annual pilgrimage to Pandharpur, 300 kilometers away, consisting of a palkhi of both figures being carried to the main temple of the Hindu god Vithoba. The pilgrimage is timed to end on the auspicious day of Aashadhi Ekadasshi.

The Shrutisagar Ashram, located at Phulgaon village off Ahmednagar road, houses the Vedanta Research Centre and a unique temple of Lord Dakshinamurthy, located near the confluence of the Bhima, Bhama and Indrayani rivers. It was established in 1989 by Swami Swaroopanand Saraswati. Here one can find detailed explanations of sruti and smrti (including the Vedas, Bhagwat Gita, Upanishads and Puranas) in Marathi and English.

Pune has been associated with several significant spiritual teachers. Osho (known earlier as Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh) lived and taught in Pune for much of the 1970s and 1980s. The Osho International Meditation Resort, one of the world's largest spiritual centers, is located in the Koregaon Park area. It has visitors from over a hundred countries. Pune is also the birthplace of spiritual guru Meher Baba, although pilgrims usually travel to Meherabad. Hazrat Babajan, according to Meher Baba one of the five Perfect Masters of her time, lived the final 25 years of her life in Pune. She established her final residence first under a neem tree near Bukhari Shah's mosque in Rasta Peth and later another neem tree in the then-dilapidated section of Pune called Char Bawdi where she remained the rest of her life. There is a shrine erected for her in Pune around the tree under which she made her final street home.

The ISKCON movement also has a presence in the city, with the Sri Radha Kunjbihari Mandir.

B. K. S. Iyengar, an internationally known yoga master, established the Ramamani Iyengar Memorial Yoga Institute in Pune in 1975, in order to train students in the Iyengar Yoga System.

Museums, Pune, Maharashtra

Prominent museums in Pune include the Raja Dinkar Kelkar Museum, Mahatma Phule Museum, Babasaheb Ambedkar Museum, Pune Tribal Museum and the National War Museum.

Pune has a number of public gardens, such as the Kamala Nehru Park, Sambhaji Park, Shahu Udyan, Peshwe Park, Saras Baug, Empress Garden, and Bund Garden. The Pune-Okayama Friendship Garden, now renamed Pu La Deshpande Udyan, is a recreation of the Korakuen Garden in Okayama, Japan.

The Rajiv Gandhi Zoological Park is located at Katraj, close to the city. The zoo, earlier located at Peshwe Park, was merged with the reptile park at Katraj in 1999.

The College of Military Engineering has a small rail museum as part of their larger Corps Equipment Museum. A large railway museum is also coming up in Lonavala about 60 km away from the city on the Mumbai railway line.

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